Aqs源码分析

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AQS是Java中互斥锁实现的一个框架,很多Java中耳熟能详的锁类都继承了它。

先来看看acquire方法。这个方法功能是拿到互斥锁,如果现在不可行就会等待到拿到锁后才返回。

/**
     * Acquires in exclusive mode, ignoring interrupts.  Implemented
     * by invoking at least once {@link #tryAcquire},
     * returning on success.  Otherwise the thread is queued, possibly
     * repeatedly blocking and unblocking, invoking {@link
     * #tryAcquire} until success.  This method can be used
     * to implement method {@link Lock#lock}.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument.  This value is conveyed to
     *        {@link #tryAcquire} but is otherwise uninterpreted and
     *        can represent anything you like.
     */
    public final void acquire(int arg) {
        if (!tryAcquire(arg) &&
            acquireQueued(addWaiter(Node.EXCLUSIVE), arg))
            selfInterrupt();
    }

上面的方法会尝试通过tryAcquire来拿锁,这个是个模板方法,需要子类覆盖。

    /**
     * Attempts to acquire in exclusive mode. This method should query
     * if the state of the object permits it to be acquired in the
     * exclusive mode, and if so to acquire it.
     *
     * <p>This method is always invoked by the thread performing
     * acquire.  If this method reports failure, the acquire method
     * may queue the thread, if it is not already queued, until it is
     * signalled by a release from some other thread. This can be used
     * to implement method {@link Lock#tryLock()}.
     *
     * <p>The default
     * implementation throws {@link UnsupportedOperationException}.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument. This value is always the one
     *        passed to an acquire method, or is the value saved on entry
     *        to a condition wait.  The value is otherwise uninterpreted
     *        and can represent anything you like.
     * @return {@code true} if successful. Upon success, this object has
     *         been acquired.
     * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if acquiring would place this
     *         synchronizer in an illegal state. This exception must be
     *         thrown in a consistent fashion for synchronization to work
     *         correctly.
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if exclusive mode is not supported
     */
    protected boolean tryAcquire(int arg) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
    }

来看一下addWaiter方法做了什么,这个方法会将当前线程包装成一个链表结点,并将结点加入到等待链表的尾部。

/**
     * Creates and enqueues node for current thread and given mode.
     *
     * @param mode Node.EXCLUSIVE for exclusive, Node.SHARED for shared
     * @return the new node
     */
    private Node addWaiter(Node mode) {
        Node node = new Node(Thread.currentThread(), mode);
        // Try the fast path of enq; backup to full enq on failure
        Node pred = tail;
        if (pred != null) {
            //优先用CAS指令来完成追加操作,如果因为并发原因失败,就使用较慢的方式
            node.prev = pred;
            if (compareAndSetTail(pred, node)) {
                pred.next = node;
                return node;
            }
        }
        enq(node);
        return node;
    }

其默认用一次CAS指令来完成,如果没有成功,就一直循环尝试。

/**
     * Inserts node into queue, initializing if necessary. See picture above.
     * @param node the node to insert
     * @return node's predecessor
     */
    private Node enq(final Node node) {
        for (;;) {
            Node t = tail;
            if (t == null) { // Must initialize
                //head初始化为一个空结点
                if (compareAndSetHead(new Node()))
                    tail = head;
            } else {
                node.prev = t;
                if (compareAndSetTail(t, node)) {
                    t.next = node;
                    return t;
                }
            }
        }
    }

剩下的acquireQueued则是循环拿锁的逻辑。

 /**
     * Acquires in exclusive uninterruptible mode for thread already in
     * queue. Used by condition wait methods as well as acquire.
     *
     * @param node the node
     * @param arg the acquire argument
     * @return {@code true} if interrupted while waiting
     */
    final boolean acquireQueued(final Node node, int arg) {
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            boolean interrupted = false;
            for (;;) {
                //这里只有链表头后一个顶点才能竞争锁,就能减少实际对锁的竞争
                final Node p = node.predecessor();
                //假如自己有竞争的资格就去拿锁
                if (p == head && tryAcquire(arg)) {
                    setHead(node);
                    p.next = null; // help GC
                    failed = false;
                    return interrupted;
                }
                //拿锁失败后阻塞一段时间
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    parkAndCheckInterrupt())
                    interrupted = true;
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

具体会不会阻塞,取决于shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire的返回值。

/**
     * Checks and updates status for a node that failed to acquire.
     * Returns true if thread should block. This is the main signal
     * control in all acquire loops.  Requires that pred == node.prev.
     *
     * @param pred node's predecessor holding status
     * @param node the node
     * @return {@code true} if thread should block
     */
    private static boolean shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(Node pred, Node node) {
        int ws = pred.waitStatus;
        if (ws == Node.SIGNAL)
            /*
             * This node has already set status asking a release
             * to signal it, so it can safely park.
             */
            return true;
        if (ws > 0) {
            //若前置结点因为超时等原因被取消了,需要修正自己的prev指针
            /*
             * Predecessor was cancelled. Skip over predecessors and
             * indicate retry.
             */
            do {
                node.prev = pred = pred.prev;
            } while (pred.waitStatus > 0);
            pred.next = node;
        } else {
            /*
             * waitStatus must be 0 or PROPAGATE.  Indicate that we
             * need a signal, but don't park yet.  Caller will need to
             * retry to make sure it cannot acquire before parking.
             */
            compareAndSetWaitStatus(pred, ws, Node.SIGNAL);
        }
        //如果不是signal状态,就先不阻塞
        return false;
    }

下面的方法则是阻塞的实现,阻塞直到收到打断信息。

    /**
     * Convenience method to park and then check if interrupted
     *
     * @return {@code true} if interrupted
     */
    private final boolean parkAndCheckInterrupt() {
        LockSupport.park(this);
        //返回值是是否收到中断信号
        return Thread.interrupted();
    }

下面是LockSupport#park方法的实现:

/**
     * Disables the current thread for thread scheduling purposes unless the
     * permit is available.
     *
     * <p>If the permit is available then it is consumed and the call returns
     * immediately; otherwise
     * the current thread becomes disabled for thread scheduling
     * purposes and lies dormant until one of three things happens:
     *
     * <ul>
     * <li>Some other thread invokes {@link #unpark unpark} with the
     * current thread as the target; or
     *
     * <li>Some other thread {@linkplain Thread#interrupt interrupts}
     * the current thread; or
     *
     * <li>The call spuriously (that is, for no reason) returns.
     * </ul>
     *
     * <p>This method does <em>not</em> report which of these caused the
     * method to return. Callers should re-check the conditions which caused
     * the thread to park in the first place. Callers may also determine,
     * for example, the interrupt status of the thread upon return.
     *
     * @param blocker the synchronization object responsible for this
     *        thread parking
     * @since 1.6
     */
    public static void park(Object blocker) {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        //在这个场景中blocker就是锁对象
        setBlocker(t, blocker);
        UNSAFE.park(false, 0L);
        setBlocker(t, null);
    }

其中UNSAFE的park方法是native方法,我们需要追踪JDK源码。

UNSAFE_ENTRY(void, Unsafe_Park(JNIEnv *env, jobject unsafe, jboolean isAbsolute, jlong time)) {
  HOTSPOT_THREAD_PARK_BEGIN((uintptr_t) thread->parker(), (int) isAbsolute, time);
  EventThreadPark event;

  JavaThreadParkedState jtps(thread, time != 0);
  thread->parker()->park(isAbsolute != 0, time);
  if (event.should_commit()) {
    const oop obj = thread->current_park_blocker();
    if (time == 0) {
      post_thread_park_event(&event, obj, min_jlong, min_jlong);
    } else {
      if (isAbsolute != 0) {
        post_thread_park_event(&event, obj, min_jlong, time);
      } else {
        post_thread_park_event(&event, obj, time, min_jlong);
      }
    }
  }
  HOTSPOT_THREAD_PARK_END((uintptr_t) thread->parker());
} UNSAFE_END

好的,抱歉,看不懂,我们继续读下面的代码好了。

下面来了解一下允许中断的情况的版本。

   /**
     * Acquires in exclusive mode, aborting if interrupted.
     * Implemented by first checking interrupt status, then invoking
     * at least once {@link #tryAcquire}, returning on
     * success.  Otherwise the thread is queued, possibly repeatedly
     * blocking and unblocking, invoking {@link #tryAcquire}
     * until success or the thread is interrupted.  This method can be
     * used to implement method {@link Lock#lockInterruptibly}.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument.  This value is conveyed to
     *        {@link #tryAcquire} but is otherwise uninterpreted and
     *        can represent anything you like.
     * @throws InterruptedException if the current thread is interrupted
     */
    public final void acquireInterruptibly(int arg)
            throws InterruptedException {
        if (Thread.interrupted())
            throw new InterruptedException();
        if (!tryAcquire(arg))
            doAcquireInterruptibly(arg);
    }

在实际阻塞过程中一旦检测到中断后,就会通过异常退出。

    /**
     * Acquires in exclusive interruptible mode.
     * @param arg the acquire argument
     */
    private void doAcquireInterruptibly(int arg)
        throws InterruptedException {
        final Node node = addWaiter(Node.EXCLUSIVE);
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            for (;;) {
                final Node p = node.predecessor();
                if (p == head && tryAcquire(arg)) {
                    setHead(node);
                    p.next = null; // help GC
                    failed = false;
                    return;
                }
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    parkAndCheckInterrupt())
                    throw new InterruptedException();
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

接下来来了解一下带超时时间的版本。

    /**
     * Attempts to acquire in exclusive mode, aborting if interrupted,
     * and failing if the given timeout elapses.  Implemented by first
     * checking interrupt status, then invoking at least once {@link
     * #tryAcquire}, returning on success.  Otherwise, the thread is
     * queued, possibly repeatedly blocking and unblocking, invoking
     * {@link #tryAcquire} until success or the thread is interrupted
     * or the timeout elapses.  This method can be used to implement
     * method {@link Lock#tryLock(long, TimeUnit)}.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument.  This value is conveyed to
     *        {@link #tryAcquire} but is otherwise uninterpreted and
     *        can represent anything you like.
     * @param nanosTimeout the maximum number of nanoseconds to wait
     * @return {@code true} if acquired; {@code false} if timed out
     * @throws InterruptedException if the current thread is interrupted
     */
    public final boolean tryAcquireNanos(int arg, long nanosTimeout)
            throws InterruptedException {
        if (Thread.interrupted())
            throw new InterruptedException();
        return tryAcquire(arg) ||
            doAcquireNanos(arg, nanosTimeout);
    }

        /**
     * Acquires in exclusive timed mode.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument
     * @param nanosTimeout max wait time
     * @return {@code true} if acquired
     */
    private boolean doAcquireNanos(int arg, long nanosTimeout)
            throws InterruptedException {
        if (nanosTimeout <= 0L)
            return false;
        final long deadline = System.nanoTime() + nanosTimeout;
        final Node node = addWaiter(Node.EXCLUSIVE);
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            for (;;) {
                final Node p = node.predecessor();
                if (p == head && tryAcquire(arg)) {
                    setHead(node);
                    p.next = null; // help GC
                    failed = false;
                    return true;
                }
                nanosTimeout = deadline - System.nanoTime();
                if (nanosTimeout <= 0L)
                    //超时了
                    return false;
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    nanosTimeout > spinForTimeoutThreshold)
                    //睡一会
                    LockSupport.parkNanos(this, nanosTimeout);
                if (Thread.interrupted())
                    throw new InterruptedException();
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

之前拿的都是互斥锁,下面展示的是拿共享锁的版本。

/**
     * Acquires in shared mode, ignoring interrupts.  Implemented by
     * first invoking at least once {@link #tryAcquireShared},
     * returning on success.  Otherwise the thread is queued, possibly
     * repeatedly blocking and unblocking, invoking {@link
     * #tryAcquireShared} until success.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument.  This value is conveyed to
     *        {@link #tryAcquireShared} but is otherwise uninterpreted
     *        and can represent anything you like.
     */
    public final void acquireShared(int arg) {
        if (tryAcquireShared(arg) < 0)
            doAcquireShared(arg);
    }

     /**
     * Acquires in shared uninterruptible mode.
     * @param arg the acquire argument
     */
    private void doAcquireShared(int arg) {
        final Node node = addWaiter(Node.SHARED);
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            boolean interrupted = false;
            for (;;) {
                final Node p = node.predecessor();
                if (p == head) {
                    int r = tryAcquireShared(arg);
                    if (r >= 0) {
                        setHeadAndPropagate(node, r);
                        p.next = null; // help GC
                        if (interrupted)
                            selfInterrupt();
                        failed = false;
                        return;
                    }
                }
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    parkAndCheckInterrupt())
                    interrupted = true;
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

感觉都没啥区别。除了不可中断的版本外,其余的版本在失败的情况下都会调用cancelAcquire这个方法。看不太懂就不扯了。

// Utilities for various versions of acquire

    /**
     * Cancels an ongoing attempt to acquire.
     *
     * @param node the node
     */
    private void cancelAcquire(Node node) {
        // Ignore if node doesn't exist
        if (node == null)
            return;

        node.thread = null;

        // Skip cancelled predecessors
        Node pred = node.prev;
        while (pred.waitStatus > 0)
            node.prev = pred = pred.prev;

        // predNext is the apparent node to unsplice. CASes below will
        // fail if not, in which case, we lost race vs another cancel
        // or signal, so no further action is necessary.
        Node predNext = pred.next;

        // Can use unconditional write instead of CAS here.
        // After this atomic step, other Nodes can skip past us.
        // Before, we are free of interference from other threads.
        node.waitStatus = Node.CANCELLED;

        // If we are the tail, remove ourselves.
        if (node == tail && compareAndSetTail(node, pred)) {
            compareAndSetNext(pred, predNext, null);
        } else {
            // If successor needs signal, try to set pred's next-link
            // so it will get one. Otherwise wake it up to propagate.
            int ws;
            if (pred != head &&
                ((ws = pred.waitStatus) == Node.SIGNAL ||
                 (ws <= 0 && compareAndSetWaitStatus(pred, ws, Node.SIGNAL))) &&
                pred.thread != null) {
                Node next = node.next;
                if (next != null && next.waitStatus <= 0)
                    compareAndSetNext(pred, predNext, next);
            } else {
                unparkSuccessor(node);
            }

            node.next = node; // help GC
        }
    }